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The limitations of in-plane STT MRAM can be alleviated by using materials magnetized perpendicular to the plane of the wafer. Indeed, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) that arises, for example, at the interface between MgO and CoFeB is strong enough to enable scaling down to sub-20 nm devices. Moreover, STT efficiency is more than order of magnitude larger than that of in-plane devices.(JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 115, 172615 (2014))